Modern Tools

How is bit error rate and bit error probability related?

How is bit error rate and bit error probability related?

Bit error rate. The bit error ratio (also BER) is the number of bit errors divided by the total number of transferred bits during a studied time interval. Bit error ratio is a unitless performance measure, often expressed as a percentage. The bit error probability pe is the expectation value of the bit error ratio.

How can we detect and correct bit errors?

Bit errors on links • Links in a network go through hostile environments –Both wired, and wireless: –Consequently, errors will occur on links –Today: How can we detect and correctthese errors? • There is limited capacity available on any link –Tradeoffbetween link utilization &amount of error control

Is it the fault of the employee or the employer?

Whatever the reason, the problem is assumed to be the employee’s fault—and the employee’s responsibility. But is it? Sometimes, of course, the answer is yes. Some employees are not up to their assigned tasks and never will be, for lack of knowledge, skill, or simple desire.

When to talk to your employer about a problem?

The first time you might be aware of a problem with your employer is when they ask to talk to you about a concern they have. It’s often best to keep this conversation informal at first because it might be the result of a misunderstanding. You might be able to provide evidence that will help clear things up – for example a doctor’s note.

When does an employee have a duty to arbitrate?

The Arbitration Process. By signing arbitration agreements, employees relinquish their right to file actions against their employers if they have a disagreement. However, the duty to arbitrate varies between agreements.

Can a court throw out an employment arbitration agreement?

In fact, courts regularly throw out those that judges rule are extremely biased for employers or flawed. Employers must understand arbitration agreement limitations to implement useful ones that will present all the benefits they want.

Can you file a discrimination lawsuit against your boss?

A single e-mail , or an audio recording of manager yelling and swearing at an employee rarely carry the day for employees who file suit against their boss. Usually, discrimination cases are proven with circumstantial evidence.

How does prehearing briefs work in employment arbitration?

After employees or former employees choose to begin the arbitration process, prehearing briefs allow the business and employees to confer their beliefs and explain their evidence to the arbitrator. Throughout the hearing, both sides exhibit their case to the arbitrator. Then the arbitrator makes a decision.